Assume the following 3-player game consisting of several rounds. Players A and B build a team, they have one fair coin each, and may initially talk to each other. Before starting the first round, however, no more communication between them is allowed until the end of the game. (Imagine they are separated in different places without any communication infrastructure.)
A round of the game consists of … Continue reading the story "Coin Puzzle: Predict the Other's Coin"
A telegraph machine can transmit only lines and dots; it takes 2 seconds to transmit a line, but only 1 second to transmit a dot. We generally want to transmit texts containing letters of the English alphabet, and digits so we have N<=36 symbols in total. Therefore, a prefix-free encoding using lines and dots is needed. Given the frequencies of the N symbols in a large text, find the … Continue reading the story "Romanian Informatics Olympiad - Modified Huffman Encoding"
The king of the universe has decided to play a game. To start, he selects 1 person. He then flips two fair coins - if they both come up heads, the person gets a free pizza and the game is over. For any other result, he sends the person home and selects 2 new people, where he does the same 2-coin flip to decide if … Continue reading the story "Pizza Paradox Puzzle"